ePUB publitags.co ´ The Italian; or, The confessional of the black penitents,

The Italian or the Confessional of the Black The Italian is a tale of secrecy and intrigue that incorporates seemingly supernatural events to explain a very complicated plot The story opens with an Italian priest offering to allow an English traveler to read a strange narrative in which the story of Vivaldi and Ellena is relayed Vivaldi meets and falls in love with Ellena but their nuptials are delayed by the death of Signora The Italian film Wikipedia The Italian Russian Итальянец translit Italyanets is a Russian drama film directed by Andrei Kravchuk The screenplay by Andrei Romanov inspired by a true story focuses on a young boy's determined search for his mother It received generally positive reviews from critics Italian English French Dictionary WordReferencecom Italian sausage n noun Refers to person place thing uality etc salami salami nm nom masculin s'utilise avec les articles le l' devant une voyelle ou un h muet un Ex garon nm On dira le garon ou un garon Italian sausage with roasted green peppers and onions make a wonderful main course Petrarchan sonnet Italian sonnet n noun Refers to person place What Cuisine Is Better Italian Or French? | I have often wondered what cuisine is better French or Italian There is no uestion that Italian cuisine is popular but is it better? As a chef my mind tells me the French cuisine is the best as a person my heart tells me that if Italian cuisine is popular around the world than it must be better However it may be the simplicity of the Italian cuisine that makes it popular Italian definition of Italian by The Free Dictionary Italia Italian Republic Italy a republic in southern Europe on the Italian Peninsula; was the core of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire between the th century BC and the th century AD European a native or inhabitant of Europe Italian | Definition of Italian at Dictionarycom Italian definition of or relating to Italy its people or their language See History of Italian Language From the Origins to the History of Italy | Britannica Italian East Africa In Italian East Africa Africa Orientale Italiana group of Italian possessions in East Africa in the period – It comprised Ethiopia annexed by Italy on May and was proclaimed a part of Italian East Africa that June together with the Italian colonies of Eritrea now part of Ethiopia and Italian Italian language Wikipedia Italian italiano itaˈljaːno or lingua italiana ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna is a Romance language of the Indo European language familyItalian is by most measures and together with Sardinian the closest language to Latin from which it descends via Vulgar Latin Italian is an official language in Italy Switzerland where it is the main language of Ticino and the Graubnden valleys of How to Say “Some” in Italian ThoughtCo If you need to buy SOME pane and a BIT of vino here you will find an easy explanation on how to appropriately use l'articolo partitivo in Italian The partitive article appears before singular nouns like del miele del caff del burro some honey some coffee some butter as well as before plural nouns of an unspecified amount dei libri delle ragazze degli studenti some books some Italian Prepositions Rocket Languages Italian preposition summary The main Italian prepositions are di a da in con su per and trafra; The prepositions di a da in su can be simple not tense or articulated tense with the corresponding article Per trafra have just the simple form while con can only become col BBC Languages Italian Language Notes il lo l' il lo l' la i gli le are all words for the In the singular il is used with masculine words beginning with most consonants The Italian Job — Wikipdia The Italian Job est une expression anglo saxonne signifiant le travail italien Elle peut faire rfrence The Italian Job titre original de L'or se barre film britanniue de Peter Collinson sorti en ; The Italian Job jeu vido sorti en bas sur le film de ;; The Italian Job titre original de Brauage l'italienne film amricain de F Gary Gray sorti en The Italian Americans | PBS The Italian Americans reveals how Italian immigrants challenged the notion of the American melting pot chronicling four generations of Italian American lives from the massive late th Century Learn Italian Online Free Online Italian Lessons Introductory Italian conversations vocabulary and grammar lessons with audio to help you practice view all lessons Italian Course Reviews If you're really serious about learning Italian check out our reviews of Italian home study courses go to reviews New What's the best way to learn Italian? Our step strategy Free Italian Lessons Italian numbers How to count from zero to one Italian Immigration to the US Spartacus Read the essential details about Italian emigration to the United States Italy was one of the most overcrowded countries in Europe and many began to consider the possibility of leaving Italy to escape low wages and high taxes Most of these immigrants were from rural communities with very little education From to arrived in the United States of whom two thirds were men Most Popular Italian Last Names Or Surnames The Italian surname comes from the Latin word Vicis which means ‘change’ or ‘alternation’ Similar meaning surnames include Cece Vose and Voce Read Romanian Baby Names With Meanings Verga This is an occupational surname given to shepherds as Verga is Italian for ‘stick’ ‘cane’ or ‘shepherd crook’ Other variations include Varga Verna Perna and Veiga V Cool Italian Idioms for the Smooth talking The Italian “Attaccarre il cappello” not only means uitting in general but has the added sense of uitting by virtue of marrying somebody rich usually a man marrying a rich woman So the Italian version wins this one what with all the perks of a golden retirement L’abito non fa Italian Americans The History of Immigration to Italian immigrants to the United States from onward became a part of what is known as “New Immigration” which is the third and largest wave of immigration from Europe and consisted of Slavs Jews and ItaliansThis “New Immigration” was a major change from the “Old Immigration” which consisted of Germans Irish British and Scandinavians and occurred earlier in the th century How good is the Italian army now? uora Today the Italian army is the rd military power in Europe after France and UK The Italian Armed forces are divided in four branches Esercito Italiano Italian Army Marina Militare Military Navy Aereonautica Militare Military Air Force a


10 thoughts on “The Italian; or, The confessional of the black penitents, a romance

  1. says:

    Conventional wisdom declares that Radcliffe was both dismayed and inspired by Lewis's The Monk into making The Italian her finest book I disagree The Italian is certainly her best constructed and most tightly plotted novel and the concentrated Italianate atmosphere is extremely effective particularly in the descriptions of landscapes I think though that Mrs Radcliffe's horror at Lewis's excesses of taste and immorality caused her to be too cautious toward her own genius and that in The Italian she produced a novel that is sometimes as plodding and dreary as the work of Clara Reeve both in its detailed litigiousness the Inuisition scenes which one would expect to be exciting are particularly boring in their concentration on legal procedure and its scrupulosity in assigning appropriate punishments and rewards Udolpho is unruly but also much inspired


  2. says:

    I had read The Mysteries of Udolpho earlier in the year and was interested enough in Radcliffe to want to read of her work My copy of The Italian had an introduction which I wish I had been able to read before starting on Udolpho as it explains a lot about the Radcliffe style Here is a short excerpt The basic pleasure in Mrs Radcliffe's romances comes from a suspension of disbelief that leads to an enjoyment of the works of her fiction in and for itself Cheerfully anachronistic in the tastes and attitudes she bestows upon her heroines Mrs Radcliffe is eually inaccurate in her descriptions of monastic life the historical surroundingsand we are told by some critics even in the landscapes she describes But this annoys us no than it would in a fairytale or an operaHistorical realism has as little relevance to her manner as would fully rounded characters whose unpredictable activities would only get in the way of the total effect Her fiction has other laws The Italian is a fast paced read with a lot happening in the first few chapters love at first sight warnings in the night a family in turmoil a kidnapping a death and mysterious characters lurking about Not to mention uick travels through the Italian landscapeand yes there really are such things as strawberry trees I liked Ellena very much She was a gentle young lady but she also had spirit than I remember being shown in Emily the heroine of Udolpho When Ellena is confronting a tormentor she regally declares You are now acuainted with my sentiments and my resolutions; I shall repeat them no You go girlOur hero Vivaldi was also likeable especially after two things happened he uit seeming like a stalker than a young lover at first he was annoying at least to me and I finally somehow managed to cure myself of that little echo of music whenever I read his name I used to listen to a lot of Vivaldi I even liked the villain Schedoni He surprised me a time or two but overall he was a perfectly evil villain which was just what the story reuired None of the characters felt over the top to me whereas in Udolpho some were just too too Here all the people seemed uite real and plausible and all the mysterious events were eventually shown to have reasonable explanationsI thought I had the whole tangled back story figured out at one point but I was only partly correct which I was glad about because I would have hated for Schedoni to really bewell who I thought he was I thoroughly enjoyed this book and can certainly see myself giving it another reading someday and looking for other Radcliffe titles to spend time with


  3. says:

    Repulsed and inspired by Matthew Gregory Lewis’s graphic gothic novel The Monk Anne Radcliffe’s The Italian is a complexly plotted Romance the term was derogatory then although what they meant by a Romance then is not what we would derogatorily dismiss as a Romance now about two chaste and naïve teens who fall madly in love with each other at first glance but then have their parade rained on by the boy’s mean spirited mother and her minion Schedoni the conniving and ghoulish monk who chomps apart every scene he skulks through Radcliffe’s writing is easy to swallow and what she lacks in finesse she makes up for in her adeptness at ambience This book is stuffed like a bloated Thanksgiving Turkey with oppressive and Sublime settings dilapidated castle ruins labyrinthine monasteries vast stretches of mountains that can only be crossed via perilous paths the dark dungeons of the Inuisition and one spooky shack on a lonely beach that comes euipped with a homicidal recluse The plot is propelled by overwrought melodrama and heightened emotional states which can make for clunky reassessments of the tribulations our characters are constantly accosted with and tautologically excessive expoundings of any given character’s internal strife Most of the horrors revealed over the course of the plot will seem tame to the modern reader’s morbid sensibilities but Radcliffe does a bang up job of straightening out all her tangled strands of intrigue before knitting it all back together again in a neat bow A fun and moody escape for any reader wanting to delve into the gothic fiction genre of the late 18th century


  4. says:

    I was first introduced to Ann Radcliffe by Jane Austen herself which some of her stories were mentioned in her Jane's novels I have read almost all of her novels and the first time I read The Italian was about 5 years ago and loved it While I was reading Charlotte Bronte's Shirley last year Caroline made a comment about Radcliffe's The Italian and having a different opinion of the ending I had to re read to see if I was wrong in my surmise uote from Shirley ' But Rose pursued Caroline I read a wanderer's life for me at least would end like that tale you are reading in disappointment vanity and vexation of spirit 'Unless she is being facetious I can not understand her comment but maybe she was talking about the villian Well to me it was pure Gothic romantic perfection I am an old school romantic which this story is all about that; feelings and winning over lady love I especially love good verses evil where there is not such a gray line that is hard to decipher like in today's world This story has romance lots of mysteries dungeons castles proud families a tad of humor in Paulo and the Inuisition which is really a perfect blend in my eyes The first time I read it I loved it the second time I loved it for I was able to understand her passages of nature better this time around which makes me want to read Udolpho again in the future at some point Thankfully to Goodreads I keep better track of my reads and my ability of note taking which I started last year and since the first time I read this I was not in the practice of this I was able to this time I read a Delphi collection and not this version if your interested in any uotes or notes that will not give the story away


  5. says:

    This is the first time I've read a book that had me force myself through the first half to then discover something of the most wonderful literature I can rememberTherefore it's very hard to grade The Italian It's a slow difficult read as much as a wonderful subtle psychological piece of work The naive Vivaldi falls in love at first sight with the lovely but poor Ellena His mother the Marchesa does everything in her power to stop them seeing each other She contacts her confessor the monk Schedoni who suggests a horrible action towards Ellena and claims that's the only way to separate them She has do die Sounds evil but his proposition isn't that unintelligible when you get to know about him Let's leave that for nowThen Ellena is kidnapped and imprisoned in a monastery Thereafter there are so many twists and turns when the story unfolds that I can't even remember them all But every character has his or her place and there's a reason they are createdSchedoni steals the show as really masterful villains sometimes do but only if they are masterful enough He's the most deceitful deceiving cynical least favorable character but at the same time the most complex I had a hard time getting to know him because I couldn't decide whether he is good deep down or not Of course he is a ruthless villain with plenty of evil deeds behind him but it seems he has a conscience after allSpoilersFor instance he has some remorse about killing Ellena He has plenty of opportunities even before he knows who she really is I won't call him a byronic hero but I'm aware that he inspired the gothic protagonists in the following centuries such as Rochester Heathcliff and even Mr de WinterHe was complicated enough as it were Then all of a sudden a surprise even to himself he's the father of Ellena And as if that wasn't enough I mean perhaps there were people who thought his conspiracy with the Marchesa towards the lovely young couple wasn't ruthless enough Radcliffe had some other surprises up her sleeve as well What about this He murdered his brother forced a marriage with his brother's wife and then killed her for not returning his feelings for her whereupon he left her and at the same time his own infant daughter That's what I meant when I stated that Schedoni's suggestion about killing Ellena was logical to him He himself had killed his OWN brother in want of his wife Olivia He knows that it's hard to force people in love apart and people goes to great lengths to achieve the ones they love He certainly did and it consumed himSchedoni turns out to be nothing like a monk at all but sought himself to that kind of life after his sins perhaps for redemption Unfortunately his vicious ways leads him into muddy circumstances yet againAnd then to really stir everything up it turns out that he isn't Ellenas father after all but her uncle something he never becomes aware of His wife had two daughters in her two marriages One with the first Count di Bruno and one with Schedoni And if anyone anywhere think this isn't enough complicated story lines intertwined Radcliffe presents us with yet another twist; Ellenas mother Schedoni's involuntary wife isn't dead at all but had taken refugee after the murder attempt to the very monastery where Ellena herself was imprisonedA very complicated story and that's not all There are constant twists that make you want to know how it's going to affect the charactersOne of many uotations I liked was thisIt may be worthy of observation that the virtues of Olivia exerted in general cause had thus led her unconsciously to the happiness of saving her daughter; while the vices of Schedoni had as unconsciously urged him nearly to destroy his niece and had always been preventing by the means they prompted him to employ the success of his constant aimEnd of spoilersOf course everyone in the book spent their time being confused I was very confusedNo one in this book is what they seem to be It was unnerving to never know what secrets the next chapter was going to reveal but I really like feeling that way when reading a gothic book or any book at all for that matterI don't know whether to give it three or four stars I suppose I would like to give it something in between The construction of the plot is fantastic but unfortunately it's slow at times Especially the first half of the book I found myself uestion whether I could endure it Further the language is that of the muddle philosophical long sentenced nature Beautiful but not very easy to digest and it takes some time to really understand everything that's going on especially between the linesBut then it paid off Such an amazing story with such interesting characters and such thrilling occurrences between personsThe story is about so much than complex relationships It's about moral disguise on several levels sin and persecution It was interesting to read about the religious conventions of the time that affected the population in different ways The last chapters focus on the trial by the Holy Inuisition where both Vivaldi and Schedoni are accusedTo people who like gothic fiction I can recommend this but it is a difficult read and takes some time


  6. says:

    This is Ann Radcliffe's second best known work right after The Mysteries of Udolpho I found this great and very exciting although I certainly do not reach the level of excitement that The Mysteries of Udolpho reached me In the well known style of the author is of course with the nice melancholy atmosphere the sentimentality and the amazing descriptions of the landscapes that are often used to describe the psychosynthesis of the heroes The issue at first glance is very simple a strong love story with lovers facing many obstacles and many adventures and upheavals against the backdrop of the Italian monasteries of the eighteenth century But I feel that there are many things in it The issue that comes up again and again through its pages is the injustice of the institutions and the reluctance of those who witness it to denounce it or even to correct it Our heroes are constantly confronted with people who for their own purposes resort to any means to prevent them from doing their will with religion being one of the main excuses for it Of course they resist and raise their stature against this system that seems insurmountable and any attempt against it is doomed Looks like I dare to say this work to be a critiue of the political and religious establishment that when this book was being written seemed to be slowly falling apart and with a call to everyone to take their responsibilities The author manages in a very nice way to connect these two elements thus creating a fascinating and very moving novel that has the necessary depth In conclusion although I find this book a little inferior to The Mysteries of Udolpho it makes me raise her a little higher in my estimationΑυτό εδώ είναι το δεύτερο πιο γνωστό έργο της Ann Radcliffe αμέσως μετά το The Mysteries of Udolpho Εξαιρετικό το βρήκα και αυτό και ιδιαίτερα συναρπαστικό αν και σίγουρα δεν φτάνω στο επίπεδο ενθουσιασμού που με έφτασε το The Mysteries of Udolpho Στο γνωστό στυλ της συγγραφέως είναι φυσικά με την ωραία μελαγχολική ατμόσφαιρα το συναισθηματισμό και τις εκπληκτικές περιγραφές των τοπίων που χρησιμοποιούνται πολλές φορές για την περιγραφή της ψυχοσύνθεσης των ηρώων Το θέμα εκ πρώτης όψεως είναι πολύ απλό μία δυνατή ερωτική ιστορία με τους εραστές να αντιμετωπίζουμε πολλά εμπόδια και πολλές περιπέτειες και ανατροπές με φόντο τα ιταλικά μοναστήρια του δέκατου όγδοου αιώνα Νιώθω όμως ότι υπάρχουν αρκετά περισσότερα πράγματα μέσα σε αυτό Το θέμα που επανέρχεται ξανά και ξανά μέσα από τις σελίδες του είναι η αδικία των θεσμών και ο δισταγμός αυτών που γίνονται μάρτυρες της να την καταγγείλουν ή ακόμα και να τη διορθώσουν Οι ήρωες μας έρχονται συνέχεια αντιμέτωποι με ανθρώπους που για τους δικούς τους σκοπούς καταφεύγουν σε κάθε μέσο για να τους εμποδίσουν να κάνουν το θέλημά τους με τη θρησκεία να είναι μία από τις βασικές δικαιολογίες για αυτό Φυσικά αντιστέκονται και υψώνουν το ανάστημά τους απέναντι σε αυτό το σύστημα που μοιάζει ανυπέρβλητο και κάθε προσπάθεια απέναντί του καταδικασμένη Μοιάζει τολμώ να πω αυτό το έργο με μία κριτική απέναντι στα πολιτικά και θρησκευτικά κατεστημένα που όταν γραφόταν αυτό το βιβλίο φαίνονταν σιγά σιγά να γκρεμίζονται και με ένα κάλεσμα ίσως στον καθένα να αναλάβει τις ευθύνες του Η συγγραφέας καταφέρνει με έναν πολύ ωραίο τρόπο να συνδέσει αυτά τα δύο στοιχεία δημιουργώντας έτσι ένα συναρπαστικό και πολύ συγκινητικό μυθιστόρημα που διαθέτει ένα απαραίτητο βάθος Εν κατακλείδι αν και βρίσκω λίγο υποδεέστερο αυτό το βιβλίο από το The Mysteries of Udolpho με κάνει να την ανεβάσω λίγο παραπάνω στην εκτίμηση μου


  7. says:

    This is a great book I recommend it to all


  8. says:

    There’s a recurring joke in The Italian where one character tries to convey a story to another character making it much longer than it needs to be The story often contains some very important information such as someone’s death The second character will freuently interrupt them saying ‘just get on with it’ but the first one will tell them to calm down and continue to tell their story at a meandering pace Not only is joke very annoying – and even so once it happens for the fourth or fifth time – but to me it also seems like an apt metaphor for the novel it appears in The Italian to me is annoying repetitious and generally frustrating which is a massive shame seeing as though it was inspired by one of my favourite Gothic novels The Monk It just feels like a missed opportunityThe Italian centres around Vivaldi and Ellena a pair of youths who fall in love Vivaldi comes from a very well esteemed family while Ellena from the opposite causing Vivaldi’s mother the Marchesa to try and put a stop to their relationship with the help of her Confessor – Father Schedoni Much like The Monk the most interesting character here is a monk While I can’t deny Vivaldi’s servant Paulo has some genuinely funny moments his master seems to be nothing than a stock 'follow your passion and listen to your heart' do gooder Ellena while showing some glimmer of agency spends most of the novel being kidnapped and freed and kidnapped again In Gothic novels it often seems as though the villains shine the most There have been many villains better than Schedoni but Radcliffe at least manages to put a nice spin on him with the twist of Ellena being his daughter and then not really Most the characters however are forgettable Even Paulo – who stood out as a favourite – is someone that I just wanted to shake and tell to shut up some times A lot of the story’s emotional weight hinges on me caring about the characters I just can’t though The good guys are too goodie goodie for me to relate to or worry aboutLet’s discuss the major themes of the novel then shall we? Sorry fans of The Italian but it looks like the positives are going to be far and few in this review Passion is Vivaldi’s driving force in the novel and instead of making his relationship with Ellena romantic it just makes him seem like an idiot Sure true love wins in the end and they get to live happily ever after but I find it hard to believe that he’d want to commit his life to Ellena after only knowing her for a few hours Ellena tries to sway him off because she knows things are going to go sour but he ignores her and Hey guess what? He gets her aunty killed her kildnapped by a band of nuns who try to force her to become a nun threatened with murder and even stuff down the line Gee whizz Vivaldi I bet Ellena is glad you followed your heart? The other major theme I guess is corruption as shown through the Marchesa and prominently with the church This is where the parallels with The Monk are most obvious with the church being portrayed as the most powerful organisation having the ability to do away with anyone they want with a snap of their fingers I enjoyed how their power was rarely addressed directly by the novel looming in the background and found it to be one of the positive aspects of The Italian Okay there’s my one positiveRepetition is often one of the things that irritates me in novels the most If a novel finds itself going over the same plot points and character moments repeatedly then it shows that either the writer doesn’t know what to do next or are trying to make their story longer than it should naturally be This is why Richardson’s Pamela is my least favourite novel For a novel that’s over 200000 words long a fair chunk longer than the last Harry Potter book there is virtually no plot Similarly The Italian seems to spend too much time on the characters simply travelling as well as them getting kidnapped repeatedly Maybe if Radcliffe had a good editor I would’ve enjoyed reading her book a bit Maybe it wouldn’t have felt like such a choreI feel like I may have been overly mean in this review but I thought I’d just be honest I’m not a fan of The Italian Let’s hope the next review I post is at least marginally positive


  9. says:

    Oh man What's happening to me? I really enjoyed this book It's essentially the story of two young people who conceive a deep and abiding love for each other on the strength of a very brief acuaintance largely consisting of longing for each other from afar after a brief initial meeting and subseuently spending a few boating trips together chaperoned by suitably respectable relatives The boy is from a noble and proud family; the girl apparently is from far humble stock His parents hearing scandalous rumours about goings on between the two forbid the union The boy's mother goes a step further and prompted by her Confessor an ambitious and sinister monk has the girl kidnapped and sent to a convent The boy tracks his girlfriend down and they escapeonly to be captured again He's sent to the prisons of the Inuisition she's sent to a desolate sea side spot to be killed How will they ever break free of their tormentors and be reunited? Who is the girl's real father? What secrets lie in the evil monk's mysterious past? A series of events no less absurd than complex eventually bring things to a happy resolution Along the way we learn a few Gothic truths of life A well bred girl while travelling will only stay in the local convent and not in a common inn even though convents are dens of infamy that exist for the purpose of entrapping such girls into lives of gloom and celibacy Just because someone is today a monk or nun does not preclude them from having had a rich and varied career beforehand including the begetting of assorted progeny and the commission of various sins The Inuisition takes a really long time to get to the point Mrs Radcliffe was a writer of ridiculously convoluted and completely gripping novels


  10. says:

    Ann Radcliffe wrote The Italian as an act of protest and self vindication after reading Matthew Gregory Lewis’s 1796 novel The Monk which according to Lewis was itself inspired by Radcliffe’s earlier novel The Mysteries of Udolpho Radcliffe was following in the tradition established by Horace Walpole’s highly successful Gothic novel The Castle of Otranto Lewis on the other hand was introducing a sensational style of Gothic romance from Germany which exploited horror and violence Notwithstanding there are many similarities between the The Italian and The Monk both feature an evil monk as the main antagonist a young lover imprisoned in a convent headed by a wicked prioress and a trial before the Inuisition The Italian is a strange novel It contains probably the most tense episode I have ever encountered in a novel In the opening chapter of Volume II Radcliffe ratchets up the tension over the course of about twenty pages until it reaches a point almost beyond endurance I was literally on the edge of my seat At this point I thought it could be the best book I had ever read Regrettably there was no release from this tension thereafter things go from bad to worse for the characters As a result the tension so masterfully created seems slowly to dissipate over the novel’s remaining 250 or so pages It felt to me as if the novel had peaked too soon An engraving from 1824 showing some of the Gothic atmosphere of Radcliffe's novel The Italian contained much that I like about Gothic fiction ruins underground passages subterranean chambers and priories headed by malevolent cloisterers But the novel is mostly praised for its depiction of the villainous monk Schedoni The blurb of my edition explains that in her depiction of Schedoni Radcliffe ‘transcends the limits of the Gothic paraphernalia and betrays her ambivalent admiration for a complex and fascinating figure of evil’ He is an impressive villain there’s no doubt But to be honest I don’t turn to Gothic fiction to read about ‘complex and fascinating’ figures of evil Sadly this novel lacked the aspect of Gothic fiction that I love most the supernatural Whereas Lewis’s sensational and influential novel contains a satisfying amount of the supernatural Radcliffe’s stays very much in the rational world of the Enlightenment I was impressed at how this grounding in reason made the tension and the atmosphere of fear intense it is people who are evil and cause other characters’ suffering not beings and spirits from another world But I can’t help preferring the unexplainable and irrational happenings that the supernatural brings to other Gothic novels like The MonkOverall then I am sad to say that The Italian hasn’t made me eager to read Radcliffe Perhaps I should reserve judgement and attempt her earlier novel The Mysteries of Udolpho